Organ Systems of the Body

Reference: Human Physiology: The Mechanisms of Body Function Fourth Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985; page, 5

By Arthur J. Vander, MD, James H. Sherman, Ph.D, Dorothy S. Luciano, Ph.D.

 

 

SYSTEMS

 

MAJOR SYSTEMS of the BODY

 

PRIMARY FUNCTIONS

Circulatory

Heart, blood vessels, blood

Rapid flow of blood throughout the body’s tissues

Digestive

Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

Digestion and absorption of organic nutrients, salts, and water

Endocrine

All glands secreting hormones: Pancreas, testes, ovaries, hypothalamus, kidneys, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, intestinal, thymus, and pineal

Regulation and coordination of many activities in the body

Immune

White blood cells, lymph vessels and nodes, spleen, thymus, and other lymphatic tissues

Defense against foreign invaders; return of extracellular fluid to blood; formation of white blood cells

Integumentary

Skin

Protection against injury and dehydration; defense against foreign invaders; regulation of temperature

Musculo-skeletal

Cartilage, bone, ligaments, tendons, joints, skeletal muscle

Support, protection, and movement of the body

Reproductive

Male: Testes, penis, and associated ducts and glands

 

Female: Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands

Production of sperm; transfer of sperm to female

 

Production of eggs; provision of a nutritive environment for the developing embryo and fetus

Respiratory

Nose, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, intestines, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, gallbladder

Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen; regulation of hydrogen-ion concentration

Urinary

Kidneys,  urethras, bladder, urethra

Regulation of plasma composition through controlled excretion of organic wastes, salts, and water