Arithmetical Word Definitions

ADDITION
English Sentence:Two plus three is five.
Mathematics Sentence: 2 + 3 = 5
Word Definitions:
  • Two (2) and three (3) are called "addends."
  • Five (5) is called their "sum."

  • SUBTRACTION
    English Sentence:Two from three is one.
    Mathematics Sentence: 3 - 2 = 1
    Word Definitions:
  • Three (3) is called the "minuend."
  • Two (2) is called the "subtrahend."
  • One (1) is called their "difference."

  • MULTIPLICATION
    English Sentence:Four "times" three is twelve.
    Mathematics Sentence: 4 × 3 = 12
    Word Definitions:
  • Four (4) is called the "multiplicand."
  • Three (3) is called the "multiplier."
  • Twelve (12) is called their "product."
  • NOTE:
    Multiplication is repetitave addition. In the above example we are adding four (4) together three (3) "times." That is why we say four "times" three. We could write: 4 + 4 + 4 = 12.

    However, suppose you had a large number like 321 that you wanted to add 123 "times." Even if you are good at addition, you would not want to do it. Besides, you would more than likely make a mistake anyway. This is an example of why the mathematians can up with a way to multiply, and why it is advantageous to know how to do it.


    DIVISION
    English Sentence:Twelve divided by four is three.
    Mathematics Sentence:12 ÷ 4 = 3
    Word Definitions:
  • Twelve (12) is called the "dividend."
  • Four (4) is called the "divisor."
  • Three (12) is called the "quotient."
  • NOTE:
    Division is repetitave subtraction. In the above example four (4) can be subtracted from twelve (12) three "times." We could write: 12 - 4 - 4 - 4 = 0.

    If you are working with positive whole numbers (also called "natural numbers" or "counting numbers"), sometimes the difference may have a "remainder." For example, you can subtract seven (7) from fifteen (15) a total of two (2) times, and have a "remainder" of one (1). We could write: 15 ÷ 7 = 2, r 1.